The HLF Conservation management action plan of 2012 contained much historical information about the Gardens, and so we have gathered together and presented that information in chronological order to make a timeline, in order to make a clear and engaging resource.
In 2017 Nigel Oxley asked a fantastic volunteer called Deborah Kirk to research and update the history of the site; this research was based entirely on original online source material, including reference to work by the historian and Humphrey Repton expert John Phibbs, bath house expert Dr Elizabeth Graham, conversations with Cyril Wolsten holme from the Hornchurch Cricket Club (Regarding Fielders Field), Julie Johns, & work with Simon Donoghue from the Local Studies Library and the Essex Records Office. The work has altered some assumptions we previously made about the park. Emma Moore, Registrar for Langtons House, created a full house history report based on Langtons, as a final assignment for a Module on House History for her Masters Study; her work is also referenced here.
Lisa Campbell Bannerman joined the project as an activity officer in June 2018 (on a five-year contract), and together with Deborah, they have combined all of this information with all the known existing images and facts they could find, to create the Langtons House and Gardens Timeline. It is a work in progress. We are always learning and adding to this timeline. If you have any historical information about the site and its local area, or images you would like to share with us, we are very keen to hear from you.
|The Langtons House and Gardens Timeline
Deborah Kirk and Lisa Campbell-Bannerman
A brief history of Langtons
The development of the wider Langtons estate:
Langtons house and gardens, now about 6 acres, used to sit in open parkland of approximately 90 acres, with paddocks and orchards. Some of the buildings that exist in between Langtons and the Billet lane(including Fairkytes), were known to be owned by the residents of the estate at different points of time. In 1876 Colonel Henry Holmes built Grey Towers House at the west side of the grounds (pictured below in 1920). It was used as a military hospital and army camp in WW1 & demolished & redeveloped for housing in 1931. In 1935 Towers Cinema was built & in 2017 it was replaced by a supermarket.
The boundaries of the current estate are outlined in red (maps 1920 to 1956, from Havering Libraries-Local Studies)
|Thomas de Langedun||13th century||The land adjacent to Billet lane is recorded as ‘Langedun’ in the 13th century,the home of Thomas de Langedun of the de Langedun family who held the manor of Langedun (now Langdon Hills near Laindon in Basildon). The name comes from the Old English words lang and dun meaning ‘the long hill or down’.[v]|
|?||14th-15th century||In 1446 a house referred to as ‘Marchauntes’ stood here|
|Thomas Latham (c.1593)
Frances Latham (1593-?)
|16th century||In 1514 the site was recorded as Langtonsland, and by the late C16th a house called Langtons had been built. Its owner was Thomas Latham, a relative of the wealthy Latham family of North Ockendon, Thurrock, & Upminster. He was the stepson of William Cade of Romford & the heir of his mother’s uncle William Tirrell of Rawreth. Thomas also owned the original Fairkytes house, adjacent to Langtons on present-day Billet Lane. Thomas Latham made a will in 1593 leaving the Langtons estate to his wife Frances.[vi]|
|Thomas Barber (c.1606)
John Ellison (c. 1567)
Susan Ellison (1567-?)
|17th century||In his will of 1606, Thomas Barber of Marshfoot Farm Hornchurch (located in the present-day Cherry Tree area of South Hornchurch/Rainham) refers to various household items belonging to him at Langtons, so he may have been Frances Latham’s tenant rather than the owner.[vii] By the mid-17th century the house had been acquired by John Ellison who left it to his wife Susan in his will of 1657. He also owned Fairkytes to which he does not refer by name, but describes as land and buildings belonging to Langtons and occupied by Job Alibond of London, who is known to have lived at Fairkytes in the 17th century.|
|Richard Gosfright (1730-1746)
Catherine Gosfright, Then Sarah Mackrill (nee Gosfright) & John Mackrill (1746-1772)
John Mayor, M.P (1772-1785)
|18th century||From about 1730 the house, then known as Langton Hall, was owned by Richard Gosfright who was an East India Company sea captain, ship-owner and a joint-proprietor of the Blackwall shipyard in London.[viii] When he died in 1746, it passed to his widow Catherine and then apparently to his daughter Sarah, who was married to John Mackrill, a Bermondsey wool merchant. Sarah’s younger sister Frances was the wife of Robert Henley Ongley of Old Warden, M.P. for Bedford, who used Langton Hall as a country seat.[ix]
John Mackrill died in 1772 and was buried at St Andrew’s Church, and Sarah then sold the estate in order to settle his business debts.[x] The estate was purchased by the brewer John Mayor, M.P. for Abingdon, who also occupied Lacy’s Court in Abingdon and Hoppy Hall in Upminster.[xi] John appears to have been the brother of Mary Mayor of New Place, Upminster, whose husband James Esdaile was Lord Mayor of London in 1766.[xii]
|The present Langtons House and Fairkytes (which was originally a farmhouse) were reconstructed sometime in the mid to late 18th century. According to Emma Moore, Langtons displays various Georgian characteristics, such as the overall symmetry of the building, the plain openings of the double-hung recessed windows with stone sills and exposed sash box – suggesting a construction date prior to the 1774 Building Act which required the sash box to be set behind the outer wall – and a shallow-pitched roof partially hidden by a parapet. The twelve pane design of the windows on the first and second floors is also typical of the Georgian period. The lack of ornamentation on the south façade also suggests a construction date from the second half of the eighteenth century when the exterior of houses tended to be less decorative. The size of the bricks used to construct the wings either side of the house conforms to those manufactured after 1776 which is consistent with the late 18th century date that the wings were added.[xiii] Emma Moore suggests that the elliptical windows along with their segmental arches above the second storey windows of the wings have been designed in an early Georgian style. These were not original features of the wings since they are absent from the 1805 and 1850 illustrations of the house.[xiv]
The stable block was built in 1775 (we are not sure where this date comes from) and the orangery, described as a hot house when Langtons was auctioned in 1797, appears to have been constructed concurrently with the house and it is, but it is difficult to date accurately because it has been rebuilt many times. The stable block and cottage are now one building, but it originally consisted of a three-bedroom cottage at the West end, and at the East end; stables and coach house on the lower floor and servants’ quarters and dormitories on the first floor.[xv] These were reached by an outside wooden stairway at the back of the building (now used as a fire escape). There used to bea pump in the grounds with the date 1760 & the initials J.M; it could represent John Mackrill whose wife owned Langtons in 1760, or it mightbe the manufacturer’s initials rather than those of the owner & rebuild date.[xvi]
|Richard Wyatt (1785-1797)||In 1785 the house – once again known as Langtons – was sold to Romford-born Richard Wyatt, the retired governor of the East India Company’s Fort Marlborough settlement at Bencoolen in Sumatra, who in 1777 had purchased the neighbouring Fairkytes House from Mary Hadlow (Mid-18th C-1777).
Langtons house was occupied by Richard Barnard Wyatt (Jr) while his father Richard Snr still lived at Fairkytes. His son was a former Eton pupil and keen sportsman, and he established the Langton Park cricket ground on the estate, where first-class matches were played from 1785 until 1793. On a related note -Langton Park was the home ground of the Hornchurch Cricket Club for most of the 19th century, and today it is known as Fielders Sports Ground and is still used by the club as a secondary location to Harrow Lodge Park.[xvii]
On 21st July 1797 Langtons was put up for auction by Richard Wyatt and the successful bidder was the London silk merchant John Massu, a French Huguenot refugee. The Massu Family have always been credited with undertaking the remodelling of the house and gardens, extending the house by adding the two-storey wings on either side and restyling the grounds in accordance with plans attributed to the renowned landscape garden designer Humphry Repton of Hare Street. This is because Themassu Name appears on Humphry Repton’s illustration ofLangtons from1805.However, recent research by Deborah Kirk endorsed by John Phibbs, suggests that the work was in fact commissioned by the Wyatt family. Repton approached his social contacts to ask for work improving their estates, and among his early known clients were friends and associates of the Wyatts such as Thomas Coke of Holkham Hall, Norfolk and Sir Peter Burrell of Langley Park, Kent (both of whom attended Eton with Richard Barnard Wyatt and participated in sports with him in later life); John Yeldham of Saling Grove near Braintree in Essex (from whom R B Wyatt leased land at Nelmes), and the Russell brothers of Stubbers, North Ockendon (with whom R B Wyatt played cricket).Among the selling points listed in the 1797 auction advertisement bearing Richard Wyatt’s name are an ‘orchard, pleasure ground, garden’ and‘a paddock of 32 acres, ornamented with fine timber-trees, and a sheet of water’which are all clearly illustrated on the 1812 survey map of Hornchurch.[xviii]The cricket ground was a feature favoured by Repton, and his own 1805 illustration of the house shows that the trees were well-established by that time.
Langtons gardens are considered by English Heritage to be a site of strong local historic significance as a designed ornamental landscape. In 1805 the illustrated pocket appointment diary Peacock’s Polite Repository, produced by William Peacock, included an elegant engraving labelled Langtons, Essex, Seat of J. Massu Esq, in which a number of contemporary improvements are visible. For example, the lower, two-storey wings have been added on either side of the building, and the garden incorporates a serpentine pond with a cedar of Lebanon on the lawn: two features favoured by Humphry Repton. The engravings for The Polite Repository were created by John Peltro from tiny watercolour views that were painted by Humphry Repton, who was its illustrator from 1790 until 1809. Although no Repton ‘Red Book’ makeover images for Langtons gardens have survived, because of the style and features of the garden, and the view drawn by Repton; he is understood to have been its designer. Humphry Repton’s influence can be seen in:
• Some key internal views
• the serpentine lake- It is believed that the lake was originally fed from the workhouse pond at the bottom of Billet Lane
• the majority of the path network
• the boundary wall of Langtons Gardens
• the gardeners’ Bothies
• the stable block yard including pond
• the ‘mazy’ shrubbery to the east of the house
• the southern approach to the house
• the reconfiguration of the Billet Lane entrance
• the introduction of the enclosed orchard
• some of the tree planting, including the multi-stemmed Cedar on the south west lawn, the planting of the horse chestnuts in the main driveway
• and both the orangery and the bath house/gazebo (which fronts onto the landscaped garden and lake) are Grade II Listed Buildings that are also in keeping with the Repton style.[xix]The Orangery is believed to have been built concurrently with the existing house in the C18th, but according to Dr Elizabeth Graham, the bath house, consisting of a plunge pool, is an early C19th structure. Both features are difficult to date, having been renovated numerous times over the years.
Additionally, a kitchen garden in the western part of the garden was started during this period
|Massu family (John & Mary Massu) (1797-1850)||Early 19th century||The London silk merchant and French Huguenot refugee John Massu who purchased Langtons in 1797 died in 1807 and he was buried in a vault at St. Peter’s Church in the Essex village of Paglesham where he owned the adjacent residence Church Hall.[xx] John Massu‘s widow Mary Massucontinued to live on the site until her death in 1850.|
|John Wagener (1850- 1884) Helena Jane Wagener (1884-1891)
Henry Holmes (1891-1899)
|1850-1899||Hornchurch town begins to develop to the east of the site and residential housing gradually encroaches on the open land around Langtons. The railway now borders the site on two sides.
Shrubberies have been planted to the west of the house.
In 1850 the property was acquired by the wealthy businessman John Wagener from Trendelburg in Germany, who had previously owned a sugar refinery in Mansell Street, London.[xxi] In 1863, John Wagener’s eldest daughter Emilie married Colonel Henry Holmes of the Essex Artillery Volunteers, who, during the course of his lifetime, was a ship-builder, bank director, magistrate, proprietor of the Old Hornchurch Brewery, member of the Essex County Council and leader of various charitable organizations.[xxii]
On a related note- In 1876 Holmes constructed Grey Towers house which stood on land at the west side of the Langtons estate. During the First World War Grey Towers was used as a military camp by the Sportsman’s Battalion, and from 1916 as a convalescent hospital for New Zealand troops. Grey Towers was demolished in 1931 and its site was developed for housing.
John Wagener died in 1884 leaving Langtons to his widow Helena Jane,who then died in 1891, and both are buried at St Andrews churchyard in a grave marked with a marble stone.
Following the death of his mother-in-law Helena Jane Wagener, Henry Holmes owned Langtons for a short time before selling it in 1899.[xxiii]
|Mr & Mrs Varco Williams
& his daughter Mrs Elizabeth Parkes (1899-1929)
|1899-1929||Langtons was sold to William Varco Williams – known as Varco Williams – head of the family haulage and collier firm of Samuel Williams at Dagenham dock. Varco Williams was a JP, a member of the Port of London Authority and Master of the Watermen’s Company, and he played a leading role in the political life of the Romford division of Essex for 30 years. He died in 1937 at the age of 80.
The Williams family was responsible for remodelling Langtons early in the twentieth century by rebuilding the north front; opening up part of the ground floor into a staircase hall; adding a billiard room on the west side; and renovating the cottage/stable block.[xxiv]
|Hornchurch District Council (1929)||1929||On 1st June 1929 Langtons House and gardens ceases to be privately owned as it was gifted to the town of Hornchurch by Varco Williams and his daughter Mrs Elizabeth Parkes, including the proviso that the house should be maintained in the condition in which they had kept it, and the gardens should be kept open to the public. It was the office headquarters of Hornchurch Urban District Council until 1965 when it passed to the newly formed London Borough of Havering.|
|1930-1939||Dense residential development now boxes in Langtons on every side causing Keswick Avenue entrances to be built to allow access. Grey Towers is demolished to make way for this. Tennis courts and a tennis pavilion are created.|
|1939-1947||The second world war causes the woodland area to be dug out as allotments which are in use throughout the war. The kitchen garden is also used as allotments.
Sometime during this period, the Cromer Road and Boscombe Avenue entrances were created.
|1947- 1959||The kitchen garden was reinstated in 1947 but was soon after subsumed into the pleasure gardens. The allotments in the woodland ceased to be used for this purpose. Municipal planting is likely to have been introduced during this period. The tennis pavilion is demolished (we are not sure where this knowledge comes from).|
|A number of structures were reconstructed during the 1960s including the original greenhouse west of the orangery and the potting sheds. Storage sheds were also introduced during this period. Langtons is a showcase garden with 6 full time staff employed.
The interior of the Stableblock and cottages building has since been substantially remodelled, but as recently as the 1960s the original tiled walls and horse stalls were still visible on the lower floor stable area. Access for two carriages was provided through the large doors at the East end of the building, whilst access for horses was through the large stable door at the front into an area with three wooden stalls, still marked by the high-level windows which were above each one. The small front door (not authentic) was the original entrance to the stable and tack room (still wood panelled), and the larger front door to the West was the original front door of the self-contained cottage. The cottage had a front sitting room, a parlour, and a kitchen with butler sink and walk-in pantry. The upstairs consisted of three bedrooms which, even during the days of Hornchurch Urban District Council, were used as staff flats.
|London Borough of Havering 1965||1965-1976||Langtons Gardens and Fielder’s Field pass into the hands of Havering Borough Council who use it as council offices until 1976. A rose garden was established some time during this period. The tennis courts go out of use at some point during this time.|
|1976||Langtons House becomes the Borough Superintendent Registrar’s Office.|
|1988-1990||Restoration works to the orangery take place.|
|2010||Restoration works to the bath house are undertaken.|
|2012-2018||In 2016 a Lottery-funded restoration project was completed with repairs to the orangery, greenhouse and some grade II listed walls; the laying of new pathways; the construction of a new toilet block, car park, café and faux bridge across the lake; and the insertion of a gate in the peripheral wall allowing access from Billet Lane for the first time since the late C18th.
The house is now used on the ground floor as a registry office/civil marriage venue and the function hall for wedding receptions, events and meetings etc. The first floor is for registering births, deaths and marriages
|‘Early Village Cricket’ from the International Cricket Council|
THE HISTORY OF FIELDERS SPORTS GROUND
Fielders Sports Ground is part of the Langtons Estate and dates from the eighteenth century when the village of Hornchurch was a sporting centre, with cock-fighting, prize fighting and an annual wrestling match for the prize of a boar’s head. Originally called Langton Park, it was the first official home of the Hornchurch Cricket Club. The earliest available reference to the Hornchurch team appeared in the Chelmsford Chronicle on 22 August 1783:
On Tuesday 26th instant a match of cricket will be played at Mrs Barkers at the Green Man Navestock between the Gentleman of Hornchurch and Ingatestone for one guinea each man. Wicket is to be pitched at ten o’clock.
The Langton Park ground was established two years after this match by Richard Barnard Wyatt, a former Eton pupil and keen sportsman who occupied Langtons House from 1785 until 1797, a time when cricket was becoming a major sport in England. The Hornchurch Club was representative of Essex as a county, and first-class games were played at Langton Park until 1793 when the repercussions of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe caused organised cricket to cease altogether. The ground was in use again by the early 1800s when Hornchurch experienced an era of outstanding success, witnessing a run of 7 years unbeaten from 1822-1829.
The club remained at Langton Park until 1889 when it relocated to the nearby Grey Towers Park, but when war broke out in 1914, Grey Towers was requisitioned for army billeting (the sportsman’s battalion). After the war the Hornchurch Cricket Club moved to a field near Wingletye Lane, and in 1925 it relocated again to a ground on the current site of the Queen’s Theatre, which was also used by the Britannic Lodge Cricket Club formed in 1918 by the fraternal Freemasons society The Hornchurch Loyal Britannic Lodge of Oddfellows. This group had links to a Quaker Community, who instigated a covenant to stop the consumption of alcohol on the Fielders field ground. In the mid-1920s the Britannic Lodge Cricket Club was offered a 21year lease on the former Langton Park site now owned by Jack Fielder, one of its founder members. Jack Fielder’s field became the new home ground of Britannic Lodge, one of the leading clubs in the area until the outbreak of the Second World War. (Then the lease was later renewed for another 21 years.)
|Hornchurch cricket club playing|
In the mid-1940s the Hornchurch Cricket Club moved to Harrow Lodge Park to make way for urban development, and Britannic Lodge began to share its Fielders ground with the Air Raid Police, the Fire Service and the Local Government who used the grounds for mid-week games. By the 1970s the Lease had expired & the council had taken control of Fielders ground which by this time was also used by the Wingletye Tennis Club (which had been around since the 1920’s). In 1979 the wooden cricket pavilion was burnt down by vandals and Britannic Lodge was obliged to share the tennis pavilion which was already in a state of disrepair. The tennis club folded in the late 1980s, and it was not until 1996 that the sum of £110,000 was raised (from sources including national lottery grants, sports foundation for the arts grants, and donations from the club), that permitted the building of the present pavilion located on the eastern side of the Fielders ground.
In 2002 Britannic Lodge merged into the Hornchurch Cricket Club at Harrow Lodge Park, but the name ‘Britannic Lodge’ was still used by a Sunday only club for the next 5 years, and the Fielders Sports Ground was retained as a secondary site where cricket is still played today. The Season begins in the first week in May until mid- September, and games are most often played here on the weekend.
Things we don’t know yet:
- Why is it called Langtons house?There was a house there before called Langedun, what does this mean?
- Who lived here in the C17th?
- How the Langtons estate developed and how the surrounding parkland evolved into its present state; what did the house and garden look like pre C18th? We have a map, what does it show? Is it described anywhere?
- The development of Hornchurch from small rural village to the densely populated urban area which it is today: how did that dramatic change affect the lives of the people who lived here? What changed?
- What did the owners look like? Is there any more information out there about the people and notable families who lived at the house?
- We know about cricket and some other activities taking place here, such as; bowling, gardening allotments, & tennis, but we don’t have photos of these activities taking place. What other historical activities took place here? How was the estate used, or how were similar estates used?
- Mapping the Humphrey Repton features in the garden and creating appropriate Humphrey Repton style planting lists for the kitchen garden, bog, wildlife and natural play ideas;how does it compare to what we have today? What new plants do we have from the renovation?
- What historical costumes are relevant to the site? (links to activity 19 Historical costume volunteers)
Landscape Character Area
[i]Marchuantes from British History Online: https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/essex/vol7/pp25-31#anchorn71 and Place names of HaveringJulie Johns November 2000 from Hornchurch Life: http://www.hornchurchlife.co.uk/history/history-of-place-names-in-havering/, Meaning of Marchuantes from Julian of Norwich: The Influence of Late-medieval Devotional CompilationsElisabeth Dutton 2008 from Google Books: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XQhIapIiwyoC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=marchuantes+merchants&source=bl&ots=oGnhLmx5jB&sig=ACfU3U0k7pPvNjSSDZHobgM_W9uOaR9G4g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiihrf5_YDhAhURyIUKHT-kA7MQ6AEwAHoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=marchuantes%20merchants&f=false
[ii] Will of Thomas Latham from Elizabethan Life: Wills of Essex Gentry and Yeomen Essex County Council 1980 supplied by Simon Donoghue of Local Studies Romford
[iii] Humphry Repton illustrated Langtons for Peacock’s Polite Repository in 1807, but the 1797 sale notice from The Times “Sales By Auction.” Times [London, England] 12 July 1797: 4. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 15 Feb. 2017.URL
http://find.galegroup.com/ttda/infomark.do?&source=gale&prodId=TTDA&userGroupName=havering&tabID=T003&docPage=article&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&docId=CS67246316&type=multipage&contentSet=LTO&version=1.0 gives a detailed description of the grounds as they appear on the 1812 survey map of Hornchurch supplied by Simon Donoghue of Local Studies Romford. Humphry Repton began work as a landscape architect in the late 1780s when Richard Wyatt owned the estate.
[iv]Langtons gifted to the council from British History Online: https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/essex/vol7/pp25-31
[v]Langedun from Place names of HaveringJulie Johns November 2000, citing A Dictionary of London Place Names Anthony David Mills, from Hornchurch Life: http://www.hornchurchlife.co.uk/history/history-of-place-names-in-havering/ and the de Langedun family from Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society
by Essex Archaeological Society1906 from Archive.org: https://archive.org/details/transactionsess01socigoog/page/n123 and Laindon and District Community Archive:https://www.laindonhistory.org.uk/content/areas_and_places/langdon-hills/one-name-or-two-laindon-and-langdon-hills
[vi] The Tirrell and Latham families from The visitations of Essex by Hawley, 1552; Hervey, 1558; Cooke, 1570; Raven, 1612; and Owen and Lilly, 1634 Walter C Metcalfe from Archive.org: https://archive.org/stream/visitationsofess13metc#page/110/mode/2up/search/cade and Will of Thomas Latham from Elizabethan Life: Wills of Essex Gentry and Yeomen Essex County Council 1980 supplied by Simon Donoghue of Local Studies Romford.
[vii]Langtonsland from Place names of HaveringJulie Johns November 2000 (see note 5). Wills of Thomas Barber and John Ellison from Ancestry.co.uk and Job Alibond (Alibone) at Fairkytes from Ye Olde Village of HornchurchCharles Perfect 1917
[viii]The Peerage of Ireland by W. Owen, 1790 from: Google Books: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zjAwAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA371&lpg=RA1-PA371&dq=richard+gosfright+langton+hall+frances+peerage+of+ireland&source=bl&ots=EV6lJRXK3z&sig=ACfU3U3D5M2T5rTrq5qXi4l623Uwxv-qvQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwje0-Wvm4LhAhVQRhUIHeG1A-sQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=richard%20gosfright%20langton%20hall%20frances%20peerage%20of%20ireland&f=falseWills of Richard and Catherine Gosfright from Ancestry.co.uk
[ix] Marriage of Sarah Gosfright and John Mackrill from The London Magazine, Or, Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer, Volume 20 R. Baldwin, 1751 from Google Books: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aPwRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=gosfright+mackrill&source=bl&ots=t-xm1IbeL2&sig=ACfU3U35sVMiQ1a7vf3ziCjYmoHmhQKpcg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjwl4e2nILhAhW2RBUIHWwlAkAQ6AEwB3oECAIQAQ#v=onepage&q=gosfright%20mackrill&f=false
[x] Death of John Mackrill from The History of Essex: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time : Illustrated with Accurate Engravings of Churchs, Monuments
Elizabeth Ogborne 1814 from Google Books: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IeVSAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=elizabeth+ogbourne+john+mackrill+hornchurch&source=bl&ots=X3KwjspCwS&sig=ACfU3U0qAf3_PAX2hcveRYzlOquqexOWwQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjMvsmMnYLhAhW0WRUIHX5aBewQ6AEwAHoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=elizabeth%20ogbourne%20john%20mackrill%20hornchurch&f=false
[xi] John Mayor of Langton from The Court and City Register Or Gentleman’s Complete Annual Kalendar: For the Year … 1776Jolliffe, 1776 https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=dvI9AAAAcAAJ&pg=RA1-PA24-IA13&lpg=RA1-PA24-IA13&dq=john+mayor+abingdon+langton+hornchurch&source=bl&ots=_olWlcQxEX&sig=ACfU3U1dpbXLBlp6SrNgMti7D_6v9lLKpw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiw-c3xnYLhAhVxsHEKHfWTDCQQ6AEwAnoECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=john%20mayor%20abingdon%20langton%20hornchurch&f=false
[xii] James Esdaile of New Place from Old Upminster: https://upminsterhistory.net/2014/05/15/who-was-sir-james-esdaile/
[xiii] T. Yorke, Georgian and Regency Houses Explained, Countryside Books, Newbury, 2007, pages 43, 63, 53 and 56 from House History Langtons House Hornchurch Emma Moore 2017
[xiv] 1805 illustration from Peacock’s Polite Repository and 1850 illustration from the sale brochure from Essex Records Office
[xv]Langtons House and Gardens: A Brief History Nigel Oxley 2012
[xvi] Pump from London Open House Factsheet 1998: http://www.openhouselondon.org.uk/london/search/factsheet.asp?ftloh_id=3483
[xvii] The Hidden History of Hornchurch’s Gentry Romford Recorder 1st February 2015: https://www.romfordrecorder.co.uk/news/heritage/the-hidden-history-of-hornchurch-s-gentry-1-3936217Information about Richard Wyatt buying and rebuilding Fairkytes is from the Fairkytes Conservation Plan second plan April 2004: Rees Boulter Architects from Havering Local Studies at Central Library, Romford.
[xviii] 1812 survey map supplied by Simon Donoghue of Local Studies Romford
[xix]Langtons Gardens John Phibbs full report April 2005 supplied by Simon Donoghue of Local Studies Romford
[xx] St Peter’s Church, Paglesham: http://www.essexchurches.info/church.aspx?p=Paglesham
[xxi]Sugar Refiners &Sugarbakers Database http://www.mawer.clara.net/sugarwwae.html and British History Online: https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/essex/vol7/pp25-31
[xxiv] British History Online: https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/essex/vol7/pp25-31